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 F-104S Starfighter

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PostSubject: F-104S Starfighter   Sun Jan 17, 2010 6:00 pm

F-104S STARFIGHTER












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DETAILS :


Role : Interceptor aircraft
Manufacturer : Aeritalia
Designed by : Lockheed
First flight : 22 December 1966
Introduced : 1969
Retired : 2004
Primary users : Italian Air Force ; Turkish Air Force
Number built : 246
Developed from : F-104 Starfighter



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SPECIFICATIONS :


General Characteristics :

Crew : 1
Length : 16.7 m (54 ft 9 in)
Wingspan : 6.68 m (21 ft 11 in)
Height : 4.11 m (13 ft 6 in)
Wing area : 18.2 m² (196 ft²)
Empty weight : 6,760 kg (14,900 lb)
Loaded weight : 9,840 kg (21,690 lb)
Max takeoff weight : 14,060 kg (31,000 lb)
Powerplant : 1× General Electric J79-GE-19 afterburning turbojet
Dry thrust : 52.8 kN (11,870 lbf)
Thrust with afterburner : 79.6 kN (17,900 lbf)



Performance :

Never exceed speed : Mach 2.2
Maximum speed : 2,330 km/h (1,450 mph, 1,259 kn, Mach 2.2) at 11,000 m (36,000 ft)
Cruise speed : 981 km/h (610 mph, 530 kn) at 11,000 m (36,000 ft)
Range : 2,920 km (1,815 mi, 1,576 nmi) (Ferry range)
Service ceiling : 17,680 m (58,000 ft)
Rate of climb : 277 m/s ()
Wing loading : 680 kg/m² ()
Thrust/weight : 0,78:1 typical
Climb to 10,700 m (35,000 ft) : 1 min 20 sec
Climb to 17,100 m (56,000 ft) : 2 min 40 sec
Ballistic zoom : > 27,400 m (90,000 ft)
Range (with four auxiliary tanks), interceptor : 1,250 km (777 mi)[citation needed]
Range lo-lo-lo with 7 x 340 kg (750 lb) bombs : 480 km (mi)
Range hi-lo-hi with 7 x 340 kg (750 lb) M117 bombs : 608 km (mi)
Acceleration to 12,000 m and Mach 2 : 5 min
Max G-load : 6.5
Turning rate, max and continuous : 13 and 9°/sec
Takeoff and landing : 830 m and 760 m


Armament :

Guns : 20 mm (0.79 in) M61A1 Vulcan cannon with 725 rounds
Other : External bombs (max. seven) and missiles (max. eight).
Hardpoints : ventral for 900 kg (1,984 lb), lateral .
Fuselage : 365 kg (805 lb), underwing, internal (wet) 450 kg (992 lb), external 365 kg (805 lb), wingtips (wet) for 680 kg (1,499 lb). AIM-9s could be carried on all except central, AIM-7s on underwing, external. Bombs on all except wingtips, but it was possible to carry napalm bombs.
Typical loads : two-four tanks two/four bombs or one AIM-9 and one AIM-7 (Interdictor configuration) or eight AIM-9 and two AIM-7/Aspide (Interceptor configuration)



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BACKGROUND


The Aeritalia F-104S Starfighter was a licensed production Italian version of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter which served in the Italian Air Force (AMI, Aeronautica Militare Italiana), and was the AMI's mainstay from the late 1960s until the beginning of the 21st Century. The F-104S also served in the Turkish Air Force until the mid-1990s. The F-104S was the final development of the Starfighter line.

Derived from Lockheed's design studies on a "Super Starfighter", the F-104S was one of the most capable of the F-104 series, and destined to be the last in service worldwide. The F-104S was retired from service in 2004.



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DESIGN


The F-104 series had entered a second development phase with the F-104G. While the USAF had no more interest in the F-104, Lockheed proposed the Model CL-901 featuring the new J79-GE-19 engine and the Sparrow III missiles; "G" denoted "Germany," the lead country for this version, while "S" indicated the improved "Sparrow" version. Further proposed developments included the CL-958 with larger wings, the CL-981 with retractable canard wings behind the cockpit, and the CL-984 optimised for low-level strike missions. An RF-104G was modified and flew in December 1966 as the prototype CL-901 "Super Starfighter." Externally, the new type had slightly larger air intakes and steel inlet guide vanes that allowed an increase in operating temperature from 121°C to 175°C, enabling a maximum speed of Mach 2.2.

During the first five years in Italian service, 24 F-104G aircraft were lost; and as only 80 to 90 F-104s (of 149 acquired) were operational at best, it was decided to purchase a new interceptor and fighter-bomber to reinforce the first line units.

The AMI mid-1960s "AW-X" (All-Weather-X aircraft) requirement for a new all-weather fighter aircraft led to an evaluation of many available types: the McDonnell Douglas F-4B/C Phantom, Mirage IIIC-1, BAC Lightning and North American F-100S Super Sabre among others. The eventual choice was the Lockheed CL-980 (a simplified version with the same wings of the projected Model CL-901). On 26 January 1966, the AMI chose the definitive F-104S as their future fighter. The first F-104S was actually a modified Fiat-built F-104G, MM6658, that acted as an aerodynamic prototype and first flew on 22 December 1966, while a second prototype, MM6660, fitted with new avionics systems closer to the final configuration, flew on 28 February 1967. MM.6701, the first production F-104S built by Aeritalia flew on 30 December 1968.

The F-104S was designed to carry AIM-7 Sparrow missiles (while deleting the Vulcan gun). In the attack role, the F-104S had nine hardpoints, and could carry up to seven 227 kg (500 lb) or 340 kg (750 lb) bombs; an improvement over the F-104G which could hold only half that payload on five hardpoints, two of which were needed for auxiliary tanks. Theoretically an F-104S could be equipped with four or five bombs, two tanks and two AIM-9s, becoming a dual-role aircraft.

The new type entered service in 1969; and in that year, the F-104S accumulated 460 flying hours.

The AMI bought 205 examples, all delivered from 1969 to 1979, with the 100th aircraft delivered in January 1973, and the 200th in May 1976. The model was built in two versions; as an interceptor armed with AIM-7 Sparrow missiles (the M61 Vulcan being removed); and as a fighter bomber, with the gun retained and bombs and other air-to-surface ordnance. The models were interchangeable, making it unclear how many were built or rebuilt to these specifications.



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VARIANTS


F-104S (Lockheed Model CL-901) ::

246 aircraft produced mainly by Fiat and Aeritalia (one aircraft was lost before delivery), upgraded for the interception role having NASARR R-21G/H radar with moving target indicator and continuous wave illuminator for SARH missiles (initially AIM-7 Sparrow), two additional wing and two underbelly hardpoints (to give a total of nine), uprated J79-GE-19 engine with 52.8 kN (11,870 lbf) thrust (79.6 kN/17,900 lbf with afterburner), and two additional ventral fins for increased stability at high Mach numbers. The 20 mm (.79 in) M61 cannon was sacrificed to make room for the missile avionics, the cannon was always fitted to fighter-bomber variants. Up to two Sparrow; and two, theoretically four or six, Sidewinder missiles were carried on all the hardpoints except the central (underbelly), or seven 340 kg (750 lb) bombs (normally, two-four 227-340 kg/500-750 lb). Range was up to 1,250 km (777 mi) with four tanks, ferry range
2,940 km (1,827 mi)


F-104S-ASA ::

(Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma - "Weapon Systems Update") - An upgraded Italian version, with 147 modified from existing airframes, upgraded with Fiat R21G/M1 radar with frequency hopping, look-down/shoot-down capability, new IFF and weapons delivery computer, and provision for AIM-9L all-aspect Sidewinder and Selenia Aspide missiles. Due to the delays of Aspide integration, it was also called the ASA-1 with Sparrows, and ASA-2 when the Aspide became available, and eventually all F-104Ss were upgraded to ASA-2 standard. The fighter-bombers had no substantial improvements in the "ASA" version, and were later modified to interceptor standards (CI) without the M61.


F-104S-ASA/M ::

(Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma/Modificato - "Weapon Systems Update/Modified") - 49 F-104S-ASA and 15 two-seat TF-104G aircraft were upgraded from 1998 to ASA/M standard with GPS, new TACAN and Litton LN-30A2 INS, refurbished airframe, and improved cockpit displays. All strike-related equipment was removed. The last Starfighters in combat service, they were withdrawn in December 2004 and temporarily replaced by the F-16 Fighting Falcon, while awaiting Eurofighter Typhoon deliveries.



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UPGRADES


Two further update programs were carried out prior to the introduction into AMI service of the Eurofighter Typhoon, resulting in the F-104S-ASA and F-104S-ASA/M.


F-104S-ASA ::

The F-104ASA (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma), developed in 1986, introduced a Fiar Setter radar, with 'look-down' capability and compatibility with the Selenia Aspide missile. AIM-9Ls were then used as the main armament, replacing the previous "B" and "F" version of this missile, while the older AIM-7s were retained. One AIM-7 was usually carried under each wing. In total, 147 of the F-104S airframes were converted to ASA standard at an expense of around 600 billion lire, the last ASA model was delivered in the early 1990s.


F-104S-ASA/M ::

The ASA/M upgrade (initially known as the 'ECO' (Estensione Capacità Operative) upgrade) focused on improving reliability rather than combat enhancements, and involved 49 ASA aircraft. 15 TF-104Gs were also involved in this program .



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